tv [untitled] January 12, 2013 5:00am-5:30am PST
of the expeditionary training group. this is a fabulous panel and i know you're going to appreciate what they have to say. rear admiral, i think you'll start. >> first of all on behalf of the chilean navy i would like to thank so much to san francisco fleet week, particularly to admiral gary roughhead for being invited to participate in this senior seminar. it's a privilege for me to be here and to share with you the experience that we had just during and after the earthquake that we had in chile in february 27, 2010. most of the lessons learned that i'm going to show here to you is part of your concern and i'm very glad you are taking that in account so i think you are absolutely in the right path.
anyway, it's a massive event that you always have to work a lot in order to be prepared. i'm going to show you a short presentation where i'm going to thank that point starting from the general effect of the massive earthquake and then going down to the particular events that we've taken in care as a navy. as you see here, chile is located in the southwest coast of south america and we had an earthquake on february 27, 2010, with an intensity of 8.8 richter scale located approximately in the center of the country. the subduction zone, the area where the plate and the south american plate made contact was 250 kilometers. that means that the intensity was felt above 8
in about one-third of the country. as you can see, in the highlight color you can see the people who was affected with that earthquake at about 6 million people. that means more than 40 percent of the chilean population. in terms of energy was released, you can see there it's one trillion kilograms of tnt, that means an 8.8 earthquake. another comparison could be 18,000 times the hiroshima atomic bomb. it's supposed it occur less than two a year above 8. chili has first runner up with 9.5 with bolivia, 10 minutes duration. this one was 8.8, at that moment was no. 4, then japan next year led next year with
8.9, but it's a lot, a big amount of energy was released in just 3 1/2 minutes. usually that things happen at night. i don't know why, but it always happen at night. so we are leading on february 27 at 3.24 and you can see in light blue the time when the first wave arrived the coast because the epicenter was so close to the coast. so it's no more than 10 minutes and at the same time the waves start moving through the pacific ocean and in 21 hours it hits the coast of hawaii. so everybody was affected because of that. in mexico, for instance, the variation of time was 1 1/2 meters. as you can see there, when
that happened, 3.34, immediately we have different waves. the high of that wave was at about 50 meters but one hour after that in one place we start having waves of 30 meters. a happened in the island of guata after that, 7:00 in the morning we are still having different waves at different places in the coast arriving every 30 minutes and the average high was about 15 meters, which is a lot. another massive effect was that the south american plate jumped over nafka plate, or nafka plate gets down. we moved 3 meters to the west and at the same time we lift up at about 3 meters in certain
areas. so navy -- this is very important because in some places where you are supposed to get into with your ships, not any more. so a hydrographic survey, certain port was absolutely mandatory when you have this event. i said to the australian staff, because of that we are closer neighbors right now. here you can see an example that was before the earthquake, the distance of the low tide. and now it's absolutely far away. so some marine small sea life in there absolutely disappeared. that's another effect you can see a lighthouse in there before tsunami and where is the lighthouse in the middle of the island down there after the tsunami. so the bottom is absolutely came up.
another example. another effect of -- global effect. because of the change of the mass of the earth, because it moves so it change slightly the configuration, it has an effect in the axis rotation of the globe. it moved 8 centimeters north pole to the east and that means rotation increased 1.26 millions of seconds so you work less because of chili right now, but it's an impact you have to take into account that happened because of that earthquake. here i can show you a set of photographs of the destruction in the coastal villages, most of them was because of the tsunami. the waves came in there and destroy everything.
it goes about 300 meters inland, so nothing was safe. in the port activities, the containers, it's impressive derelict, you have it take that into account in places where you put containers in there because it was a big problem. and infrastructure also have some things was destroyed. bridges, airport. that's in santiago, absolutely far away from where the epicenter was. in terms of people who was meeting close to 500 people, 150 was because of the tsunami, 350 because of the earthquake.
that is why, i show you why later. in certain areas over there just in -- 47 people died at once because they are on an island 100 meters off the coast and when the first wave came in, the island was completely flooded. people tried to escape so they can't so they climb into the trees and when the navy get in there just about at the top of the trees. that's what we found. the cost was close to 30 billion u.s. dollars. how we organize, well, we have something similar that you have. we have the national emergency office under the internal affair minister and they have offices in the different counties, in the different places in chile this emergency office request aid directly to the joint chief of staff and joint chief of staff
to the army, navy or air force and then we move the pieces to put the aid where they need it. the scenario, the beginning when we face this was the same thing we are talking about in this seminar. the necessity was access because everything was, the delivery was absolutely hampered because of the roads so we have to clean it. water, food, electricity and communications. another need at that time to do that is field hospital generators, housing, sat coms, purifying water systems and mobile bridges. so the force was at the beginning just to distribute the aid and at the end start doing law enforcement when the
government declared catastrophe and the president gave us the authority to do that. so we move the army inland, next the navy in the coastal communities and in san feir fernandes island and doing an airlift to the most affected area. sanfernandes island is a very small island, only a thousand people living there, but it was completely destroyed. that's what we found when we arriving there, debris everywhere, and as you can see that was the port and the square before, and that was after. so the change is, it's quite impressive. the same was a local pier and
a school. that was a school. nothing. so we put in the navy, the navy put them in there two, three combat ships, type 23's and l ship and transport plus mtaa aircraft transport, aircraft and hell helicopters to try to help people in there. we used the ships to deliver food, clothes and all that stuff without any problem. also we helped in different matters that the navy can do that. for instance here was with divers and with submarine robot to find bodies. getting medical assistance, removing debris, try to rebuild
some houses and establish basic services. moving people in and out with the navy ships. that was something this i think is a very good idea because of, as you mention here, the shock where everybody is in shock, one officer had the idea to talk with people of the university to provide a group of clowns to the island. so we put it in there and with the navy and the clowns were coming down, everybody on the island was so surprised. it breaks everything, you know, you don't expect that an lft came in there, open up and the first getting out was clowns. so i think it was a good idea. we built a modular school because the school was completely destroyed. you have it take all the deb brae and disembark and move it to the
continent. this is in another coastal area, conception, the island you see was orego island, that was the island where people was there making a barbecue. when tsunami get in there, not even the grass was safe, everything was removed, and the island in front was completely flood. there is the island down there. it was flooding absolutely. this is a fishing market. that was before the navy came in there and after the navy came in there. a lot of fishing was close to 1,000 fishing boat was grounded and it was part of our job to put them in the water again. so heavy lift cranes are absolutely mandatory to have a safe place to move them
and to start working. and because as i mentioned to you before, the ships cannot be, get into the port directly, so we make, we pier side two ships floating and all transfer of the cargo was through (inaudible) as you can see we deliver that assistance to different coastal communities. we use the marines to do that so no problem. as you see in the photograph below, you can see that the only way to get it in there was with rubber boats, not any more with the lft's that you used to or we used to get into. so we act, we are
participating very active for 23 days, 18 of that at sea with these numbers. and that was what we did. in terms of lessons learned, as admiral nathan said, no one is prepared for an event of such magnitude, so you have to take many things in account but with a guitar in your hand it's another story. you have to be prepared as much as you can. the first section is to establish coms. communications is the most important thing to deal with an emergency of this sort and you are absolutely right.
people and infrastructure regulations. in our school we teach our kids that if they felt a tremor or an earthquake, which is they can't stay stand, they have to run it high lands. how high? about 30 meters above sea level. this is mostly safe. but also we practice that in many coastal communities we practice at least once a year. also the streets, we have signs that say, this is the evacuation route in case of tsunami. we have that in all our coastal cities. infrastructure regulations, you cannot build anything which is not 7.5, or less than a 7.5. if there is a mother who has no diapers and no food for
their children, 24 hours and everything is, you know, no water, no nothing, people tend to go to a supermarket, absolutely broken, no one is in there, and start looting. so -- and it's something that you have to understand. so usually police, the armed forces time to react is very, very important. and in navy aspects we have a plan and we put that plan in effect and it works so it's very good, this kind of meetings because that is exactly what you are doing. naval effects as usual prove their flexibility and their capacity to remain in the affected areas for a long time without any logistical support so we can do a lot.
that plan put the surface units in less than 24 hours. naval doctrine was highly effective. most of our ships -- the earthquake was at 3.34 and most of our ships get underway at about 4:00 or 4.10. one of them without a captain, he is not a captain any more, but all people get into the ship and ships get underway without any order. as you mention also here, joint medical command control center is absolutely essential. and hydrographic survey prior to entering ports in affected areas is something that is mandatory. and the joint government (inaudible) of this exercise will be highly valued. so that
conclude my presentation and we always face the glass plenty of water, so we think these are challenges, someone put it in our face and we have to look at an opportunity to grow up and be a better country. thank you very much. (applause). >> thank you, admiral, that was fascinating. next to come up and speak will be rob dudgeon, the director of the emergency services division. >> good morning again. i'm going to talk about a story of people. it's not really going to be a story of geology and the earth moving and statistics. it's going to
be about the people and it's going to be about the lessons that we've learned and what we took away from that. i wish i could say that the small graup of us went to van, turkey, and did something heroic and changed their lives. i really can't say that. but i can say they changed ours. the lessons we brought back from there will benefit our greater community more than i ever thought would be the case when we detarted. to go back and start a little bit at the beginning of how this even came to pass because it's typically not a mission of a city to go to an international destination. we've got a state department, we've got the military, we've got a lot of organizations at the federal level that do this all the time. so it seems a little bit of a one-off for a city to be involved. but when i say it's a story of people and a story of community, it really does start
right there. last halloween, so we're talking on the eve of -- in the aftermath of fleet week, as it were, october is a really busy month for us here in san francisco. it starts off with fleet week and it ends with halloween so it's two cresendo events. last halloween diana who you see running around here, key to the organization, who does most of the logistics to make this happen, and i went to get dinner at a local establishment. it's called hays and kabob and we went to get dinner on our way to the operations center hoping nobody would celebrate too much so we
could get out of there at a decent hour. when we went there, we were both in our black eem polos and we started talking to the owner and he said, oh, did you hear about the earthquake in turkey? well, we'd heard about it the way everybody heard about it, i think it got about two minutes on some of the cable news channels, and that was it. there wasn't a lot of coverage on the van earthquake. it just didn't hit the air waves that much. he said, oh, my family's there. and he started talking about the devastation and exactly what the impact was. they were friends with the mayor of van and the mayor had asked them because they were in san francisco if there was a way they could get san francisco to help them and he was trying to get a meeting with the mayor to express this concern and make a request. i said, well, interestingly
enough, we could probably help you with that because we do have a bit of a connection with the mayor's office. but the first thing we need, we need a letter, we need something official. i mean, i'm just an old paramedic, i have to ask, right? within 24 hours we had a letter. and this was the first hint of what we were going to see when we got there about the resolve and the resiliencke of these people. technology obviously was impacted so in order to get us a letter in the quickest amount of time possible, they typed it on an old typewriter, took a picture of it and emailed us the jpeg. no scaner, nothing like that, it was a jpeg of a leg. i said, good enough, it's a letter. we took that to ann kronenberg
and said here we are, what can we do. in the meantime we did some brain storms, is this something real, is there any value we can add to this scenario? what we came up with was obviously we don't have the deep pockets to send over rebuilding teams or send over thousands and thousands of tons of material, that's just not what we could do. but what we could do is assemble a small team to go on a mission to van and meet them and talk to them and find out more about what do they need and is there an intersection of what we can do for them and in the meantime it gives us an opportunity to really look and see what the situation was and what we can take away from it. so that led to the next question, which all of us in government understand this one really, really well, how do we pay for it? last time i checked, home land security grants and general fund don't really look fondly on missions to foreign countries because we do have a department of state and a military that does this
all the time. so is it really something that's in our purview and what can we use the funding for and that led to the next obvious conclusion in our minds, which was we need a partner. we need a nonprofit partner. and the first thing that popped in our mind was fleet week because we've been working with fleet week for a number of years and the focus has been on humanitarian relief. so we made a phone call and we talked to lewis. and i gotta say, if there's one guy in this room that is the unsung hero of fleet week, it's lewis. he doesn't get a lot of recognition but he spends 16 hours a day this time of year working on fleet week and we went to him (applause) -- when we went to him with this
admittedly somewhat crazy idea, we said, we want to partner with you and by that i mean i want you it raise some money. and he didn't even blink. he said, well, how much do you need and we calculated it out. really in the world of corporate america, not that much. in the world of government, even less. and he said, yeah, we can do that. let me make some phone calls. a couple of days later, he said, all right, i got a couple commitments. let's put a team together. it was myself, diana, lewis, val valesky, i'm sorry, it's been a long week already and some people from public works. we want a couple engineers, i'm an old medic, diana is really the logistics master and i figure if we're going to go someplace where thins might go awry, i wanted someone like that.
so we put this together in 30 days, including a holiday. we were wheels up for van, we spent 10 days in country. and the story there is interesting, to say the least. a little bit of a cultural difference. you kind of have to wade through, and i'm sure i'm preaching to the choir in the military here, you have to separate out how things are versus what you're used to and what it really means because otherwise you can really get into apples and oranges. so the take away for me, and what should be rolling behind me, are just a series of photographs of van when we were there. and what i hope the story that they are telling is this example of what we saw. i mean, there's some classic examples if you look at the buildings, these were all new buildings, by the way, that were condemned. but as you look you'll see some buildings with big cracks in them to where they are x-like cracks. that's classic soft story
construction damage. that's what happens when earthquake sheer hits. that's what it looks like. for an emergency manager in san francisco, that's a really valuable lesson. i know what that looks like now. flood and val were great in taking engineering principles and helping us understand what was at work here and at the end of the line i'd say the first lesson that i'm going to say we took away was that building codes matter. they matter a whole bunch. because what we saw was maybe lax not forcement of building codes. they have building codes, they just didn't enforce them as much. using fill brick was great installation but not so great during shaking. so all these buildings were damaged and unstable and people were afraid. which takes me to the people. because i've met a lot of people in my life. i've dealt
with people, the very rich and the very poor. as a paramedic, you only see people when they are having a really bad day. that's what one of my mentors explained to me early on. no matter what you think when you walk in the door, remember it's the worst day they've had in a while, whether or not it's your day or not. and there's something to be said for that. so the story of the van people. first of all, i have to get a little bit of politics here. it's a heavily kurdish region. this is eastern turkey. van is the largest settlement in eastern turkey. at that time its peak it had about 700,000 people in it during the summer. beautiful like, absolutely gorgeous place to be. after the earthquake everybody who could leave, did. so what you have left are those that are either die-hards, the people that are the leaders of the community that want